Philosophy Contract Pregnancy: For Technological progress has spurred incredible advances in reproductive technology.
Numéros en texte intégral
Contract pregnancies, where surrogate mothers carry babies to full term for an intended couple, has been income generators for surrogate mothers and miraculous solutions for infertile or non-traditional couples. This phenomenon has stirred numerous controversies and debates. However, most of the arguments against contract pregnancy are not fully supported. Contract pregnancies should remain legal because the arguments against the practice are neither fully supported nor significant enough to warrant a ban.
The asymmetry thesis is the notion that there should be a difference between the treatment of reproductive labor compared to other forms of labor.
Moral Philosophy and Politics
Reproductive labor involves genetics, 1. It lasts a significant amount of time — 9 months, whereas other types of labor do not require such a long-term commitment. For instance, able participants may take excessive risks of extremely bad consequences. As there is nothing problematic in the market for Bibles, for instance, she argues that it is not obvious what the link is between the sacred value of a good and its equal distribution. Moreover, the value of a good, such as sexual relations, is sometimes controversial or subject to a great diversity of views.
Specific egalitarianism may be right in some instances but, she claims, it does not give us a sufficient theory of noxious markets.
In the last part of the book she examines various examples and applies her theory to them. In this case she argues that the main problem lies in the consequences for society because commodifying reproductive labor reinforces gender inequality of status and promotes prejudices about the role of women in society.
She then makes the same argument about female prostitution, while insisting that there is a great diversity of cases in the market for sex, some of which also involve bad consequences for the seller risk of violence and vulnerability concerns.
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Obviously, her theory implies a different treatment of male prostitution because the concern for gender inequality vanishes in this case. She also examines markets for child labor, bonded labor, and organs. In the case of child labor, she takes the interests of children and the development of their capabilities as the main guideline, concluding that abusive forms of child labor are much more problematic involving extreme harm to the individual than other forms. The case of bonded labor is treated in the light of the four items and all appear relevant, the most important problem being the inequalities in power and the encroachment on basic freedoms generated by a widespread practice of bonded labor.
Finally, markets for organs appear problematic on all four counts when they are unregulated, but with substantial restrictions certain forms of organ selling appear tolerable.
Asymmetry thesis satz
This is a case in which the empirical facts about the consequences are important and may depend on the context. The motivation of donors is famously known to be sensitive to the context of the donation. There may be other consequences as well. For instance, she highlights the example of Indian poor being refused credit when they do not accept to put their organs as collaterals. The market for organs therefore generates externalities on other markets and creates additional inequalities. It seems to me that Satz could have built an even more ambitious set of conclusions from her theory.
Rather than thinking of the four critical items as features that render a market problematic when they are strong enough, one could critically examine all segments of a market, or even every individual trade, in this light.
Debra Satz's Profile | Stanford Profiles
Alternative policies may involve regulation e. The structure of the book is as follows. In the first chapters, she reviews and criticizes two views. But she is right that most of economics focuses on efficiency issues. In particular, the economics of asymmetric information typically argues that markets are too narrow because the asymmetry in information creates a lack of trust.
Debra Satz Asymmetry Thesis
What Satz has in mind regarding weak agency is somewhat different, and has to do with the danger for weak parties of being exploited. This danger, by putting off some potential traders, may reduce the size of such markets.
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While economists would focus on the idea that with more information such markets could be expanded, the concern Satz addresses is that there is a sense in which without restoration of informational symmetry such markets are too big because they harm some weak parties to the trade—a judgment that has to do with equity rather than efficiency. In particular, Smith was well aware of the fact that certain forms of subordinated and repetitive work alter the ability of the worker to lead an autonomous life. It would have been interesting to examine whether the economic literature on fair allocation has anything to say about noxious markets.
But this literature would suggest that all markets in which parties meet with unequal endowments are problematic, an idea that Satz does not consider seriously because her goal is to make practically relevant distinctions between markets in societies with a degree of inequality as in the USA today. What she criticizes about this view is the idea that, absent inequalities, a market with fully able participants is unproblematic. Given the list of four problematic items introduced above, it is easy to see why she rejects this view.
senjouin-kikishiro.com/images/dazegogam/1176.php For instance, able participants may take excessive risks of extremely bad consequences. As there is nothing problematic in the market for Bibles, for instance, she argues that it is not obvious what the link is between the sacred value of a good and its equal distribution.
Moreover, the value of a good, such as sexual relations, is sometimes controversial or subject to a great diversity of views. Specific egalitarianism may be right in some instances but, she claims, it does not give us a sufficient theory of noxious markets. In the last part of the book she examines various examples and applies her theory to them. In this case she argues that the main problem lies in the consequences for society because commodifying reproductive labor reinforces gender inequality of status and promotes prejudices about the role of women in society.