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Introducing quotations in essays

Other signal verbs include:. When citing outside sources, you are required to include: the author s ' last name s ; the date of publication; and, for direct quotations, the page number on which the quoted passage appears. If there is no page number, use the paragraph number to indicate the location of the quotation. Precisely how do you insert this required information into your writing?

You have two options. The first is to include the full or last name s of the author s directly in a sentence, and the year of publication in parentheses just following the name s.

Introductory phrases

If directly quoting, include at the end of your sentence the page number where the quotation can be found. Here are some examples:. Your second option is to include all of the required information in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. Notice in the above examples that quotation marks always have a beginning and end, occurring immediately before the first word of the quotation and immediately after the last word.

Quotations-University Essay Writing

Periods are always placed after the end-of-sentence parentheses, as in p. How does this data add to what I am trying to prove in this paragraph?


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Why am I putting this quotation in my paper? What am I trying to show here? Never leave any room for interpretation. It is your responsibility as the writer to interpret the information for your reader and identify its significance. Remember, a quote does not speak for itself or prove anything on its own.

Introducing Quotations and Paraphrases

It depends on whether the title is a restrictive or nonrestrictive element. Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases are "extra information"; if they are removed, the meaning of the sentence remains the same.

Memory tip: Try putting your thumb over the information within the commas. If the sentence changes without that information, the information restricts the meaning of the sentence, and you don't need the commas. This is incorrect because the commas imply that Alcott wrote only one novel, which isn't true.

Introducing a quote

If you put your thumb over what's between the commas the "extra information" , the sentence would read like this: In Louisa May Alcott's novel, Christie Devon declares her independence from convention. That doesn't have the same meaning, and anyway, we know that Louisa May Alcott wrote more than one novel.

Yes, you do. All papers must have a Works Cited page, even if you're using your textbook as the source for the works you'll be discussing. The Works Cited page is a list of the references you actually discussed in your paper, not a list of all the sources consulted. Edited by Firstname Lastname, Publisher, Year, pp. Page Numbers. Wharton, Edith.

Introducing and referencing quotes

The House of Mirth. Fetterley, Judith. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Norton, , pp. Pages in Reader. Medium of Publication.

Newer versions of Word also have built-in citation managers. If you're using a reference manager Zotero , Endnote , Mendeley , etc. How can I cite an electronic edition, such as a Kindle edition?

dipimditabko.ga If you cannot identify the file type, use Digital file. For example:. Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. New York: Farrar, Writers must always accurately quote the source. If you decide to quote a source in order to support your thesis statement, reproduce the source word for word. The rules for quoting prose vary according to how much you quote. Adhere to the following guidelines. According to the MLA Handbook , if you must omit a word, phrase, or sentence from a quoted passage, mark the omission with ellipsis points.

If you omit an entire sentence, use ellipses points, and retain rules for end punctuation always place a period at the end of a declarative sentence. In other words, use four periods, with no space before the first or after the last.

Follow this rule for a quotation with an ellipses at the end as well, except when a parenthetical citation follows the ellipses. We can only read what is present in a novel, play, or film. Pointing out that readers can only read what is actually present in a particular text is illustrative, but this assertion can be omitted without changing the meaning of the passage.

A Word of Caution : Never present a quote in a way that could cause a reader to misunderstand the original quote There may be some occasions when you need to alter a quote in order to prevent the audience from becoming confused. When you formally introduce a quote, such as with a complete sentence, precede it with a colon When you informally introduce a quote, such as when you make the quote an integral part of the sentence structure, precede it with a comma or no punctuation Required commas and periods follow the citations, except when the quote is a block quote All other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points—go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material